Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
There are different constructions of UAVs. Planes and helicopters are the best known of them, but also there are airships, nanohelicopters (fit in the palm) and even airplanes, powered by solar batteries. Recently UAVs are used increasingly for operational remote sensing (aerial survey). Specialized systems or multipurpose UAV systems are created for this purpose. Ultra-light and light classes of UAVs are preferred for the rapid aerial survey, because they do not require airports or specially prepared sites.
Unmanned aerial vehicles are usually classified according to the interrelated parameters such as mass, time, distance and altitude.
Classes of vehicles:
- ultra-light — weight up to 10 kg, the flight time of about 1 hour, altitude up to 1 km;
- light — weight up to 50 kg, the flight time of several hours, altitude up to 3-5km;
- medium — weight up to 1000 kg, the flight time 10-12 h, altitude up to 9-10 km;
- heavy — altitude up to 20 km, flight time is more than 24 hours.
It is important to note that ultralight UAVs can’t be equipped with sophisticated precision survey system, because they are severely limited in weight of the payload. Furthermore, these devices are highly susceptible to the influence of weather conditions (for example the UAV with weigh 2 kg can be used at a wind’s speed up to 10m/s). However, the equipment of such devices provides successful and efficient survey for the purpose of real-time monitoring of floods, fires and others.
In addition, the price of such system is very attractive. To perform high-precise aerial survey it is desirable to use light and medium classes of vehicles, as they can be equipped with more advanced photographic and stabilizing equipment. It should be noted, that the improvement of production the miniature sensors caused the development of the UAVs.
Aerial survey from UAVs, equipped with the appropriate survey system allows getting digital images with high spatial resolution of up to 4 cm. Depending on the type of camera images may be used for:
- Primary Analysis of the areas;
- Analysis and control of the terrain changes;
- Searching facilities;
- Creating new and updating existing orthophotos;
- Determination the coordinates of objects.
Unmanned aerial systems (UAS) include not only the vehicle (UAV), but the entire ground infrastructure, which is designed for machine control and data reception. The company "Sovzond" supplies vehicles of the variety of domestic and foreign manufacturers.
Unmanned aerial vehicles GEOSCAN
|GEOSCAN 101||GEOSCAN 200||GEOSCAN 401|
Mapping surveys, cadastral mapping, open mining survey and measurements, monitoring of power transmission lines, gas pipes, assessment of farmlands — this is only short list of GeoScan UAVs application areas.
- High resolution matrix
- Remote control
- Flight Time
|Flight time||up to 80 min||Wingspan||130 cm|
|Flight distance||60 km||Landing||parachute|
|Takeoff weight||2,3 kg||Readiness time||10 min|
|Payload||0,5 kg||Temperature range||-20 ... +40°C|
|Max altitude||up to 3000 m||Max. wind speed||10 m/s|
|Covered area (for flight)||3-4 km2 @ 4 cm/px||Radio link range||25 km|
- UAV equipped with Sony Nex5 (7) camera;
- Laptop with preinstalled program for flight tasking and AgisoftPhotoScan Pro software;
- Battery charger, spare parts;
- Transportation box/.
|Flight time||up to 2.5 hours||Wingspan, cm||220|
|Speed cruising (maximum), km/h||80 (130)||Launch||catapult|
|Flight distance, km||up to 180||Landing||parachute|
|Takeoff weight, kg||5,5||Readiness time, min||15|
|Payload, kg||1.5||Temperature range, °C||-20 … +40|
|Max. altitude, m||up to 3000||Max. wind speed, m/s||12|
|Area covered in single flight at 4 cm/px resolution, km2||up to 7||Radio link range, km||up to 25|
Due to increased airborne time GeoScan 201 suits especially well for surveying of large areas and lengthy objects. In single flight it covers up to 15 sq. km with resolution enough for production of 1:2000 scale map.
Onboard geodetic GNSS-receiver allows to measure position of images with high accuracy, allowing in some cases to omit ground based works.
|Flight time||up to 1 hour||Takeoff / landingsite, m||5*5|
|Max. horizontal /vertical speed, km/h||up to 50/ up to 60||Readiness time, min||5|
|Flight distance, km||up to 25||Temperature range, °C||-30 … +40|
|Takeoff weight, kg||6.5||Max. wind speed, m/s||10|
|Max. altitude, m||up to 500||
Area covered in single flght
at 2 cm/px resolution, km2
GeoScan 401 is especially effective for capturing highly detailed pictures of relatively small objects — mining pits, quarries, tower structures, objects of cultural heritage.
GeoScan 401 allows circular capturing of architectural complexes and cultural heritage objects from various altitudes, and even in dense urban areas. From data captured by UAV one can then build photorealistic 3D-model, perform volume measurements, assess the state of objects, estimate scope of restoration needed. Georeferenced 3D-models may be used also for creating virtual tours.
The aircraft may be equipped with a high resolution video camera or infrared camera. Combined with onboard set for online data transmission this makes possible remote visual inspection of objects, identify structural changes, corrosion, damage to the connectors etc. The UAS also used for monitoring and operational management in emergency zones.
Unmanned industrial helicopter Scout B1-100
The helicopter can be carried on conventional manual mode with high maneuverability or can be operated with its integrated INS / GPS automated flight control system. This flight control system allows joystick (velocity) mode as well as waypoint (GPS) mode. Autonomous unmanned industrial helicopter Scout B1-100 was developed for professional airborne applications, such as aerial survey, airborne broadcasting, search and rescue, surveillance and inspection, law enforcement.
- Air-cooled gasoline aircraft engine with electric starter onboard;
- Easy transportability and maintainability through modularity;
- Sealed gear boxes and electronics;
- Highly reliable mechanical design;
- Integrated, autonomous flight control system FCS;
- Autonomous take-off and landing;
- Optional (D) GPS/INS integrated navigation system with accuracy evaluation;;
- Flexible payload options;
- Possibility of vertical take-off and landing, hovering and maneuvers in confined spaces;
- High maneuverability;
- Smoothly running engine and optimal vibration isolation of the payload;
- Long-term flight endurance up to 90 min non-stop (altitude of 500 m above the surface).
|Preparing to launch||The flight|
|Main rotor diameter||3.2 m|
|Tail rotor diameter||0.65 m|
|Main rotor speed||860 rpm|
|Empty weight (no fuel, no payload)||45 kg|
|Gasoline engine||100 cm|
|Engine power (approx.)||18 PS|
|Electric starter (onboard included)||12 V|
|Fuel tank volume (standard)||2*5.0 l|
|Material of rotor blades||carbon|
|Material of main body||aluminum|
|Engine cooling system||Air-cooled|
|Height (approx.)||1.0 m|
|Landing gear||skids (wheels optional)|
|Riegl LMS-Q160 Laser Scanner|
|Riegl LMS-Q160 is a compact and lightweight (4.6 kg.) scanning laser, optimized for detecting even low-cross-section targets such as wires, thin branches. The instrument is designed for operation as an anti-collision sensor for unmanned airborne vehicles and surveillance applications. It is based on the time-of-flight measurement principle using short infra-red pulses and opto-mechanical scanning to provide on-line range and angle data of targets within the scanner’s field-of-view.|
|Scan angle range||+/- 40° = 80°|
|Scanning mechanism||rotating polygon mirror|
|Scan speed||5 scans/sec to 60 scans/sec, 10 000 points/sec|
|Maximum measurement range||200 m|
|The noise of the laser (in distance)||2 сm|
|The diameter of the laser spot||54 cm at a distance of 200 m|
|Angle measurement resolution||0,01°|
|Measurements per line||500 @ 20 scans/sec, 1000 @ 10 scans/sec|
|Internal Sync Timer||Optional for real-time synchronized time stamping of scan data|
|ТOperating temperature range||-10 to +50̊ С|
|The object of scanning||Point cloud of laser scanning|
|Navigation system RT3003|
RT3003 is an advanced six-axed inertial navigation system with integrated precise GPS-receiver, allows getting reliable data about the position, orientation and speed. The second GPS-receiver improves positioning accuracy. Navigation system RT3003 has three gyro sensors of angular velocity, three accelerometers, working with servo-drives, two GPS-receivers and all means necessary data, all in one compact box.
RT3003 is an autonomous system, launching doesn’t require inputting data. Output data of navigation system RT3003 based on the data of the accelerometers and gyroscopic sensors. Using the inertial sensor provides a high refresh rate (100 Hz). All data are calculated in real time with very low delay. Two GPS-receivers together measure the true course. Unlike inertial navigation systems, where the correction is carried out only by single antennas, in RT3003 accuracy rate it is constant and independent of dynamic oscillations. The system RT3003 is possible to calibrate stationary.
1,5 m CEP SPS
0,6 m CEP SBAS
0,4 m CEP DGPS
0,5 m CEP VBS2
0,15 m CEP XP2
0,1 m CEP HP2
0,2 m 1σ L1
0,02 m 1σ L1/L2
|Velocity accuracy||0,05 km/h RMS|
|– Bias||10 mm/s2 1σ|
|– Scale factor||0,1% 1σ|
|– Range||100 m/s2|
|– Bias||2 °/h|
|– ARW||0,2 °/h|
|– Range 1||100°/s|
|Track (at 50 km/h)||0,07° RMS|
|Slip Angle (at 50 km/h)||0,15° RMS|
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Trimble Gatewing X100
|This UAV provides digital aerial survey from a height of 100 to 750 meters and can carry out a survey of small and medium-sized areas (quarries, objects of transport infrastructure and difficult terrain), where it is necessary to survey quickly and efficiently with high accuracy.|
- Easy and quick deployment;
- Digital and automated image processing;
- Data formats for using in GIS and CAD;
- Uniform coverage of the territory by frequent scanning.
|survey||altitude default (5 cm accuracy)||150 m|
|overlay||changing, the default 75%|
|average coating (45 min. flight)||1,5 km 2 (5 cm precision) 3 km 2(10 cm precision)|
|average number of photos per km2 ( altitude 150 m)||600|
|pixel resolution (GSD)||5 cm (default altitude)|
|planimetric accuracy||1 pxl (5 cm)|
|projection||semi-true or true|
RGB, no haze
pixel resolution (GSD)
|up to 1pxl (5 cm.)|
|planimetric accuracy||5 cm (default)|
|projection||10 cm (default)|
|Example of a built-up area shooting||Example of industrial site shooting|
|3D terrain model||Hypsometric information|